Nature of Sociology

  1. Sociology is a social science but not a natural science.

    Sociology studies human society, therefore it is a social science. It does not study the field of the knowledge of natural sciences. It is concerned with human society and their as own activities.

  2. It is an independent social science.

    Sociology is not the branch of any other social sciences because it has it's own subject matter, method of study independent branch of study. Although it is a new social science, it emerged as an independent social science like economics, education, political science, etc.

  3. Sociology is general but not particular or specific.

    Sociology studies human society for different perspective like economic, political. psychological, educational, etc. Therefore, it is general social science. Other social sciences are particular or specific because they studied specific part of human life.

  4. Sociology is pure science not applied.

    Sociology studies basic knowledge of social science. It is concerned with "what is" but not "what should be". It does not try to apply it's knowledge to the human society. Therefore it is a pure science but not an applied one. We can take the example from other sciences. Physics is pure science but engineering is an applied field. Geology and Botany are pure sciences but genetic engineering and biotechnology is their applied field. Similarly Sociology is pure field and Applied Sociology is it's applied field.

  5. Sociology is abstract rather than concrete.

    Sociology studied social system, social relationship and human psychology in group. These elements are abstract in nature. That is why we can feel it but can't touch it. It is concerned with form rather than events and patterns. Therefore, it is more abstract than concrete.

  6. Sociology is more analytical than descriptive.

    Sociology tries to analyze the social events, process and system. Generally it compares those elements of different society. It does not describe the society what does by the history. It compares the culture, society and human community and compare their social elements.

Meaning Of Sociology and It's Branches


Sociology is science of society which deals with human behaviour, interaction, relationship and system. It studies individual in groups and a group as a member of society. Among other social sciences, it is one of the youngest subject. The term society was coined by French philosopher Auguste Conte in around 1838. At first he selected the term "social physics" but later on it was changed to "sociology".

The word "sociology" has been derived from Latin language 'socius' meaning "companionship" or "associate" and Greek word "logos" meaning "study" or "science". Therefore, the etymological meaning of sociology is science of society. It's subject matter is concerned with human life, activities, social structure system. processes and so on. It studies groups and group behaviour but not an individual activities.

The sociological concept was developed from ancient Greek civilization but a separate discipline could not come out because of lack of it's coherence. So we can say that sociology has long past but short history. Other philosopher related to sociology are Max Waver, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim. They contributed much for the development of sociology and anthropology from different perspectives.

According to Kingsley Davis "Sociology is the general science of society."

According to Emile Durkheim "Sociology is the science of social institutions."

From the above definition we can say that sociology is concerned with man, it's society and relationship. Different sociologists have different perspectives but their subject matter is same.


Being a general subject, sociology studies different aspects of society. To study such field of knowledge, which is studied by different branches of society. e.g. The economic aspects of society is studied by economic sociology, political aspect is studied by political sociology and so on.

1) Development Sociology is a model concept regarding he relationship between sociology and human development, civilization and social improvement. It is concentrated with development activities and it's impact on society, human behaviour, environment and social ecology, Whether any development activities would be sustainable or not it is measured by Sociological concepts or tools. The modern modes of development and economic activities are related to social policies, gender and development or gender equity, social infusion, peoples participation, etc are sociological concept and methods of development in the society.

WID = Women in Development - Before 1970
WAD= Women and Development - 1970 to 1988
GAD= Gender and Development - 1990 onwards

  • Inclusive Development
    Any development should be sustainable for it's long term existence so that people gets advantage for long time. To be sustainable development must favour and follow local knowledge, ideas, technologies ans should be modified according to the interest of the local people.